Nature Targets

For the management of adaptation, it is important to define site-specific nature targets as every peatland has its very own, site-specific potentials which should be targeted and promoted individually.

Based on the ecological mire types of Succow (1988), the following nature target types (nature targets) could be assigned to Berlin's peatlands (also see → Indicators & Assessment):

  • sphagnum dominated peatland (oligotrophic-acid mires),
  • brown-moss dominated peatland (mesotrophic-subneutral or -calcareous mires),
  • eutrophic peatland (eutrophic fens)

For the sphagnum peatland and the eutrophic peatland, the variant with the addition „forested“ has been created:

  • sphagnum dominated peatland, forested (forested oligotrophic-acid mire with ≥ 30 % coverage by woody plants or forest communities on peatland),
  • eutrophic peatland, forested (eutrophic fen with parts consisting of swamp forests or shrub cover and/or woody plants with up to 100 % coverage)

This addition means that, depending on the conditions of the site under investigation, a local or complete forest cover is considered natural, or undisturbed. The genesis of slope or spring mires in North East Germany, for example, is tied to episodic and climate related droughts, so that afforestation is part of the natural process of mire formation and preservation.

When evaluating their ecosystem services, eutrophic peatlands are mostly considered as C sinks for climate protection or as filter for water conservation, while intact oligotrophic-acid mires („sphagnum dominated peatlands“) as well as mesotrophic-subneutral or -calcareous mires („brown-moss dominated peatland“) are more appreciated for their value for biodiversity.

The nature targets for the peatlands of Berlin and their relation to biodiversity are detailed in the table below:

Peatlands of Berlin

Targets for Biodiversity (Flora and Habitats)

Nature Targets


Biotope Type Targets by

Köstler et al. (2005)

FFH-LRT by Zimmermann (2013/14)

Targets with very high protection priority in Berlin by Seitz (2008) and Zimmermann (2013/14)

Sphagnum dominated bog

(oligotrophic-acid to mesotrophic1 transition mires)

04310, 04311, 04312, 04319, 04321, 04322, 04590x1

7140, 7150, 3160


Andromeda polifolia, Carex chordorrhiza , Carex limosa, Dryopteris cristata, Ledum palustre, Osmunda regalis, Rynchospora alba, Sparganium natans

Sphagnum dominated bog, forested

(birch bog forest, birch and black alder forest, mesotrophic-acid)2

081021, 081022, 081037(1),


91 D1


Andromeda polifolia, Carex appropinquata (birch swamp forest), Carex chordorrhiza, Dryopteris cristata, Ledum palustre

Brown-moss dominated bog

(acidic to calcareous, mesotrophic fens)

04410, 04412, 044131, 044141, 04429, 05102, 051021, 051022, 051051

72303, 64103

Carex appropinquata (Magnocaricion), Carex lepidocarpa, Carex limosa, Dactylorhiza majalis, Dactylorhiza incarnata, Epipactis palustris, Juncus subnodulosus, Liparis loeselii4, Parnassia palustris, Pedicularis palustris, Swertia perennis (spring mires)

[Dianthus superbus, Gentiana pneumonanthe (wet meadows)]

Eutrophic peatland

(acidic to calcareous, eutrophic fens)

05101, 051031, 04510, 04511, 04512, 04513, 04514, 04519, 04520, 04530, 04540


Carex cespitosa (wet meadow), Carex hartmanii (wet meadow), Scutellaria hastifolia (flood mires), Iris sibirica (wet meadows, shallow swamps), Catabrosa aquatica (nutrient-intensive), Ranunculus lingua (reed, meadows, nutrient-intensive)

Eutrophic peatland, forested

(acidic to calcareous, eutrophic swamp forests, bog shrublands and woody plants)

04560, 081032, 081034

91 E05


Carex appropinquata (alder swamp forests), Carex cespitosa (alder swamp forests)


combination of two trophic levels, as the development of oligotrophic areas in Berlin is doubtful
Molinia-biotopes were ignored as nature targets, due to their suboptimal characteristics (drained)
relative to species also for alkaline-rich, non-calcareous sites
target species for resettlement in Berlin (diaspores transfer from Brandenburg)
only wet characteritics with water violets, large sedge-reeds, ribbed bog moss and black alder forest